Paternity issues are among the most challenging problems that people could possibly deal with. If you wish to determine whether you are the father of an alleged child for any particular reason, you can either use a blood type chart (a rather old fashioned and obsolete method) or opt for DNA paternity testing. This article highlights the major steps involved when testing for paternity using the above mentioned two methods.
Blood Type Chart
Determining paternity by blood type chart is one of the earliest forms of tests administered in order to decide on the paternity of a child.
The main advantages of this type of test are the fact that it is relatively cheap, easy to administer and interpret. Even though a blood type chart is more of an elimination method rather than a confirmatory test, it may still assist in excluding potential fathers as being the child’s daddy. Determining paternity by DNA is more of a stringent and expensive test than that of blood type testing.
Paternity Testing using a Blood Type Chart
Steps in determining paternity by blood type chart:
Step 1: Blood Type of Mother and Child
The blood type of both mother and child must be determined. This result will then be tabulated for further comparisons.
Step 2: Interpret Your Chart Results
Interpreting results of a blood type chart is a very simple process that does not require much time, effort or resources. Once the blood types of both mother and child are tabulated, the cell where their corresponding blood vessels intersect should be noted. This particular cell indicates the blood types of all possible fathers of the baby.
Even though a blood type chart is relatively easy to use and interpret, it has some major limitations. The challenge comes when the child’s blood type is O and that of the mother is AB and vice versa. In such a case, using a blood type chart cannot help you in determining whether you are the biological father of a given child or not. In such instances its best to opt for DNA analysis.
DNA Paternity Testing
Since its landmark discovery in 1869, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) continues to influence medical and industrial disciplines in a positive manner. Forensic science, kinship analysis and paternity testing, are popular uses of DNA profiling. Whether you want to know the biological relationship between a child and its father for emotional or legal reasons DNA paternity testing will assist in answering all your unanswered questions!
Procedure for DNA Paternity Testing
Unlike blood type charts, determining paternity by DNA is a complex, laboratory based process that only experienced scientists or health professional may administer. The steps involved are as follows:
Step 1: DNA Collection
DNA collection from all parties (mother, possible father and child) must be collected. There are many over-the-counter DNA testing kits available but it’s always best in legal cases to have a professional collect DNA samples instead. DIY kits results are probably not acceptable in a court of law.
Step 2: DNA Extraction
After collecting samples, lab technicians will extract the DNA using various scientific methods from all samples.
Step 3: DNA Analysis
Once the DNA has been extracted, specific areas on the strand known as loci, are then analyzed. Using high throughput lab protocols such Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing, billions of copies of all loci (usually 16 in number) are generated, their base sequences are analysed and then compared to the other samples.
Step 4: Interpretation of Results
In order to analyze the data, scientists create a DNA profile of all three sample and have them compared using statistical tools to compute the probability of paternity. Any result higher than 99 % would indicate a positive conclusions.